Tuesday, October 30, 2012

World of Fighting Nations


 Chapter from the book

2. The World of Conflicting Groups

Most attempts to consider male-female relations have been made without accounting for the factors that have formed modern humanity. The most important factor that has usually been ignored is the existence in the world of conflicting groups. As groups we mean clan, tribe, nation. Man is a top predator, and the higher the place in the hierarchy of predators, the harsher is the interspecies competition between them. Competition takes place within the clan for the female, and between families for territory, and the females within the clan make the males fight for their choice of female. The literature today does not for some reason pay full attention to these clear facts of competition for resources. After all, those of us alive today are the heirs of the victors.
What we understand as a family is quite precise. It can be monogamous or polygamous. What comprises a tribe is also not open to doubt. But between the family and the tribe there is another structure. In human communities that structure is called the clan. The clan itself has no precise definition. For instance, the Random House Dictionary provides the following definitions:
1. a group of families or households, as among the Scottish Highlanders, the heads of which claim descent from a common ancestor: the Mackenzie clan;
2. a group of people of common descent; family;
3. a group of people, as a clique, set, society, or party, especially as united by some common trait, characteristic, or interest;
4. Anthropology (a) the principal social unit of tribal organization, in which descent is reckoned exclusively in either the paternal or the maternal line; (b) a group of people regarded as being descended from a common ancestor.
Definition 3 is not apt as it blurs the meaning of the term and moves over into metaphorical territory. So, to summarize:
the ‘clan’ is a robust union of kinfolk;
women do not marry into their own clan but into another;
the clan is more than a family and less than a tribe;
a clan consists of several families that often have the same surname;
primordially the clan has inhabited one piece of territory and controls it.
Thus, a clan is a community of several families where the men are tied by kin and often have the same surname, whereas the women come into the clan from other clans. We will see below that such clans existed even before the appearance of man. It is commonly accepted that clans exist only among humans, but what if they existed before man appeared on the earth? Besides, if orcs can live in clans, why not chimpanzees?
The family or clan is a primordial unit. Mammals live in clans. And these clans are constantly waging war over territory. This is part of the behaviour of man’s closest relative, the chimpanzee. In contrast to other mammals, man and the chimpanzee belong to patriarchal clans. The female passes from clan to clan, but the male remains on his primordial clan territory. Chimpanzee clans wage permanent war with each other over territory. When the enemy’s clan is destroyed, the victor’s clan occupies its territory and as a rule splits into two. Then history begins anew.
Another approach. When the partner has freedom of choice, in other words, when one’s offspring is of the best possible quality as a result of the free redistribution of genetic material, half of that offspring is born with quality higher than that of their parents and half with quality lower. In addition, the number of ‘malignant’ mutations vastly outnumbers the number of ‘benign’ mutations.
The consequence is that for procreation both in quantitative and qualitative terms parents must produce at least four offspring. This is also the Palaeolithic norm, according to archaeological findings. A population must grow twofold with each generation, entailing a subsequent shortage of resources. The only way of securing these resources is to take them from your neighbours. As a result the permanent war for resources becomes one of necessity.
Man’s forebears fought as clans, like the chimpanzees. The people began to fight as tribes, then as tribal unions. Then nations appeared. Most recent wars have seen the conflicts of national unions. There is no larger unit than a union of nations.

We should note that clan, tribe and nation are biological units because it is within these units that basic cross-breeding takes place. Otherwise these units can be called populations. Tribal unions and national unions are not biological units.
If there exists a world of conflicting groups, then who must fight with whom? Theoretically, everyone with everyone else. Until the system of universal division of labour was created people fought with their territorial neighbours. Chimpanzees are no different, because as a rule neighbouring populations occupied similar habitats. Populations who occupy similar habitats are enemies.
Lions hunt antelope, but lions are not enemies of the antelope. Habitats are different. But hyenas also hunt antelope. Lions and hyenas share the same habitat. Therefore lions and hyenas are enemies that cannot stand each other, like cats and dogs. Lions kill hyenas whenever they get the opportunity, although lions do not eat hyenas.
The same situation exists for nations. Nations occupy different habitats. The best of these habitats is where hi-tech goods and banking services have been developed. The main enemies here are America and Europe. They may demonstrate unanimity in a whole range of areas, but they are biological enemies because they share one food source. At the level of industrial production the main enemies are India and China. Again similar habitats, but they do not hide their antipathy towards each other. At the level of raw materials provision Russia and Saudi Arabia are enemies, although on the surface there would not seem to be any enmity between them; however, Saudi Arabia hugely contributed to the financial ruin of the USSR, a process that culminated in its collapse.
Methods of waging war change, but their essence remains the same: seizing someone else’s resources. And seizing someone else’s resources is not possible without suppressing those who used to own those resources. In such transactions as ‘Introducing the Euro’ and ‘Airbus 380 versus Boeing 747’ more resources were utilized than in some military operations of World War II.
The most savage wars occur when one nation divides into two, because both new nations occupy habitats very close to one another. Nations very close to one another offer the most potential for strife. Chimpanzees experience a similar situation. Very often after victory over a neighbouring clan the victorious clan splits, and then these two troops that previously belonged to one clan try to destroy each other.
Ideas for transforming the world of conflicting nations into ‘the world of NON-conflicting nations’ have not been developed. There have been many humanistic proposals, but none of them have stood the test of time. Maybe somebody one day will think of something better.
The world of conflicting groups is the fundamental tool for human selection and improvement. Whatever helps populations win in this struggle is good for those populations. What is good for the populations is biologically correct for the populations.
The modern world, as it always has been, is a world of conflicting groups. Modern man is formed by the world of conflicting groups.

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